Section of the Constitution addresses the various circumstances in which international agreements or treaties are applicable in South Africa. This provision provides that as a general rule, a n international treaty that has been ratified and approved by the National Parliament, becomes locally enforceable by the courts as part of domestic law when it is transformed or incorporated into local law. Both transformation and incorporation are legislative measures, meaning that they involve the adoption of local legislation to give effect to the treaty in question. In the event of incorporation, the local legislation simply adopts the treaty in toto as being applicable as domestic law. Interestingly, section 4 specifies that a self-executing provision of an international agreement is applicable without transformation or incorporation, if it is approved by parliament and consistent with the Constitution. Some scholars have argued that the vagueness of what is meant by a self-executing provision may provoke debate. Customary international law refers to rules that are developed as the result of consistent widespread state practice, which practice is viewed as legally binding by those states.
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Many species are infected by lentiviruses, which are characteristically responsible for long-duration illnesses with a long incubation period. Upon entry into the target cell, the viral RNA genome is converted reverse transcribed into double-stranded DNA by a virally encoded enzyme, reverse transcriptase , that is transported along with the viral genome in the virus particle. The resulting viral DNA is then imported into the cell nucleus and integrated into the cellular DNA by a virally encoded enzyme, integrase , and host co-factors.
Alternatively, the integrated viral DNA may be transcribed , producing new RNA genomes and viral proteins, using host cell resources, that are packaged and released from the cell as new virus particles that will begin the replication cycle anew. Two types of HIV have been characterized: A matrix composed of the viral protein p17 surrounds the capsid ensuring the integrity of the virion particle.
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The national flag, adopted in , consists of a blue-black triangle placed vertical to the hoist and bordered in gold-yellow. Bands of red, white, green, white, and blue appear horizontally. Two anthems are currently in use: The South African rand r is a paper currency of cents. It is used throughout the South African monetary area. There are coins of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents and 1 rand, and notes of 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 rand. The metric system is in use. Movable religious holidays include Good Friday and Ascension; Family Day is a movable secular holiday.
Comparatively, the area occupied by South Africa is slightly less than twice the size of the state of Texas. Considered as a whole, South Africa extends 1, km 1, mi ne—sw and 1, km mi se—nw. It is bounded on the n by Botswana and Zimbabwe formerly Rhodesia , on the ne by Mozambique and Swaziland, on the e by the Indian Ocean , on the s by the confluence of the Indian and Atlantic oceans, on the w by the Atlantic Ocean , and on the nw by Namibia.
South Africa also controls two small islands, Prince Edward and Marion, which lie some 1, km 1, mi southeast of Cape Town. South Africa’s capital city, Pretoria, is located in the northeastern part of the country.
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South Africa has the biggest and most high-profile HIV epidemic in the world, with an estimated million people living with HIV in South Africa accounts for a third of all new HIV infections in southern Africa.2 In , there were , new HIV infections and , South Africans died from AIDS-related illnesses.3 South Africa has the largest antiretroviral treatment (ART.
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Stigma remains a key barrier to progress, particularly among men who have sex with men and sex workers. There were 4, new paediatric infections in , compared with 16, in The Malawian HIV epidemic varies greatly across the country. HIV prevalence and density is high in the urban districts of Lilongwe, Blantyre and Zomba and in the southern region of the country.
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The epidemiology of rape has become an issue of considerable political importance and sensitivity, with President Mbeki demanding an answer to the question: The purpose of this paper is both to summarise and synthesise the findings of research to provide an overview of the epidemiology of rape of women in South Africa and to show how difficult it is to answer the President’s question.
The review begins by considering why rape is so difficult to research. Data available shows that rape reported to the police incidents of rape and attempted rape per , women each year represents the tip of an ice berg of sexual coercion. Representative community-based surveys have found, for example, that in the 17—48 age group there are such incidents per , women per year.
Non-consensual sex in marriage and dating relationships is believed to be very common but is usually not well reported in surveys. Forced sexual initiation is reported by almost a third of adolescent girls. In addition coerced consensual sex is a common problem in schools, workplaces and amongst peers. Knowledge of causal and contributory factors influencing the high levels of rape are also discussed. We conclude that the rape statistic for the country is currently elusive but levels of non-consensual and coerced sex are clearly very high.
International comparison needs to be approached with caution because most developing countries lack the infrastructure for accurate crime reporting and do not have such a substantial body of survey data. Previous article in issue.